Metals and ceramics have ordered structure in atomic levels and their orders in short or long ranges would result in crystalline or noncrystalline microstructures in micron scale. In the micron scale, microstructures of crystalline materials appear as grains. Various manufacturing processes such as forging, rolling, casting, welding, machining, heat treatments, etc. effect on performance of materials in products and load bearing structures. Failure of materials are due to improper material selection for a designed product or structure.. Chemical compositions alloys and ceramics affect the grain boundaries short range noncrystalline structures. Metallography, either in light microscopy or electron microscopy, provides a vast knowledge about possible behavior of materials under loadings. Metallography examining process requires sectioning and polishing to reach a scratch free surface and etching with appropriate chemical solutions.